Islamic Eschatology


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Islamic eschatology is the branch of Islamic scholarship that studies Yawm al-Qiyamah ("the Day of Resurrection") or Yawm ad-Din ("the Day of Judgment").  This is the final assessment of humanity by Allah (God), with annihilation of all life, resurrection, and judgment.

Coming of Al-Mahdi

THE Mahdi will come at the end of time; he is one of the Rightly-Guided Caliphs and Imâms. He is not the Mahdi who is expected by the Shiah, who they claim will appear from a tunnel in Samarra. This claim of theirs has no basis in reality nor in any reliable source. They allege that his name is Muhammad ibn al-Hasan ibn al-Askari, and that he went into the tunnel when he was five years old. The matter we intend to discuss has been proven by Ahadîth narrated from the Prophet - sallallâhu ’alayhi wa sallam -: that the Mahdi will appear at the end of time. I believe that he will appear before Jesus the son of Mary comes down, as the Ahadîth indicate.


Hajjaj said that he heard 'Alî say, The Prophet said, "Even if there were only one day left for the world, Allah would send a man from among us to fill the world with justice, just as it had been filled with oppression and justice." (Ahmad).

'Alî said, The Prophet said, "The Mahdi is one of us, from among the people of my household. In one night Allah will inspire him and prepare him to carry out his task successfully." (Ahmad and Ibn Majah.)


'Alî said, whilst looking at his son al-Hasan, This son of mine is a Sayyid (master), as the Prophet named him. Among his descendants there will be man named after your Prophet. He will resemble him in behaviour but not in looks. Then he told them the report which mentions that the earth will be filled with justice. (Abû Dâwûd)


Abû Dâwûd devoted a chapter of his Sunan to the subject of the Mahdi. At the beginning of this chapter he quoted the Hadîth of Jabir ibn Samrah, in which the Prophet said, "This religion will remain steadfast until twelve caliphs have ruled over you." (According to another report he said, "This religion will remain strong until twelve caliphs have ruled over you.")

Jabir said, The people cheered and shouted Allâhu akbar! Then the Prophet whispered something. I asked my father What did he say? My father said, He said, All of them will be from Quraysh. Another report says that when the Prophet returned to his house, Quraysh came to him and asked, What will happen after that? He said, Then there will be tribulation and killing.

Abû Dâwûd reported a Hadîth from 'Abdullâh ibn Masud: The Prophet said, "If there were only one day left for the world, that day would be lengthened until a man from among my descendants or from among the people of my household, was sent; his name will be the same as my name, and his fathers name will be the same as my fathers name. He will fill the earth with justice and fairness, just as it will have been filled with injustice and oppression. The world will not end until a man of my household, whose name is the same as mine, holds away."


'Abdullâh said, The Prophet said, "A man from my household, whose name is like mine, will take power." (at-Tirmidhî.) In another report, from Abû Hurayrah, the Prophet said, "If there were only one day left for this world, Allah would lengthen it until he took power." Abû Said said, The Prophet said, "The Mahdi will be one of my descendants; he will have a high forehead and a hooked nose. He will fill the earth with justice and fairness just as it was filled with injustice and oppression, and he will rule for seven years. (Abû Dâwûd)


Umm Salamah reported that the Prophet said, "People will begin to differ after the death of a Khalifah. A man from the people of Madînah will flee to Makkah. Some of the people of Makkah will come to him and drag him out against his will; they will swear allegiance to him between al-Rukn and al-Maqam. An army will be sent against him from Syria; it will be swallowed up in the desert between Makkah and Madînah. When the people see this, groups of people from Syria and Iraq will come and swear allegiance to him. Then a man from Quraysh whose mother is from Kalb will appear and send an army against them, and will defeat them; this will be known as the Battle of Kalb. Whoever does not witness the spoils of this battle will miss much! The Mahdi will distribute the wealth, and will rule the people according to the Sunnah of the Prophet. Then he will die, and the Muslims will pray for him." (Abû Dâwûd)


'Alî said, The Prophet said, "A man named al-Harith ibn Hirath will come from Transoxania. His army will be led by a man named Mansur. He will pave the way for and establish the government of the family of Muhammad, just as Quraysh established the government of the Messenger of Allah. Every believer will be obliged to support him." (Abû Dâwûd)

'Abdullâh ibn al-Harith ibn Juz al-Zubaydi said, The Prophet said, A people will come out of the East who will pave the way for the Mahdi. (Ibn Majah.)


'Abdullâh said, Whilst we were with the Prophet, some young men from Banu Hashim approached us. When the Prophet saw them, his eyes filled with tears and the colour of his face changed. I said, We can see something has changed in your face, and it upsets us. The Prophet said, "We are the people of a Household for whom Allah has chosen the Hereafter rather than this world. The people of my Household (Ahl al-Bayt) will suffer a great deal after my death, and will be persecuted until a people carrying black banners will come out of the east. They will instruct the people to do good, but the people will refuse; they will fight until they are victorious, and the people do as they asked, but they will not accept it from them until they hand over power to a man from my household. Then the earth will be filled with fairness, just as it had been filled with injustice. If any of you live to see this, you should go to him even if you have to crawl across ice."


This text refers to the rule of the Abbasids, as we have mentioned above in the text referring to the beginning of their rule in 132 AH. It also indicates that the Mahdi will appear after the Abbasids, and that he will be one of the Ahl al-Bayt, a descendant of Fatimah, the daughter of the Prophet, through Hasan, not Husayn, as mentioned in the Hadîth from 'Alî ibn Abi Talib; and Allah knows best.


Thwaban said, The Prophet said, "Three men will be killed at the place where your treasure is. Each of them will be the son of a Khalifah, and none of them will get hold of the treasure. Then the black banners will come out of the East, and they will slaughter you in a way which has never been seen before. Then he said something which I do not remember; then, If you see him, go and give him your allegiance, even if you have to crawl over ice, because he is the Khalifah of Allah, the Mahdi." (Ibn Majah.)


The treasure referred to in this text is the treasure of the Ka'bah. Towards the end of time, three of the sons of the Khalifahs will fight to get hold of it, until the Mahdi appears. He will appear from the East, not from the tunnel of Samarra, as the Shiah claim; they believe that he is in this tunnel now, and they are waiting for him to emerge at the end of time. There is no evidence for it in any book or Saheeh tradition, and there is no benefit in believing this.


The truth of the matter is that the Mahdi whose coming is promised at the end of time will appear from the East, and people will swear allegiance to him at the Ka'bah, as some Ahadîth indicate. At the time of the Mahdi, there will be peace and prosperity, with Abûndant crops and wealth, strong rulers, and Islam will be well-established.


Abû Said said, By Allah every ruler we have had has been worse than the previous one, and every year has been worse than the year before, but I heard the Prophet say, Among your rulers will be one who will give out wealth freely, without counting it. A man will come and ask him for money, and he will say take; the man will spread his cloak out and the ruler will pour money into it. The Prophet spread out a thick cloak he had been wearing, to demonstrate the mans actions; then he gathered it up by its corners and said, Then the man will take it and leave. (Ahmad)